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大型公共建筑能耗监控系统分析及介绍

安科瑞 崔庭宇

摘要:本文将针对大型公共建筑能耗监控系统当中安装设备的特定分类、分项能耗装置进详细分析,借助GPRS/Wi-Fi等无线传输技术手段,将大型公共建筑能耗检测到的数据信息进行动态化分析,切实为我国节能减耗事业做出贡献,对大型公共建筑的能耗消耗情况进行监控,若发现了能耗过大的问题有效进行优化与管控.

Abstract: in this paper, the specific classification and itemized energy consumption devices of the equipment installed in the energy consumption monitoring system of large public buildings will be analyzed in detail, and the data information detected by the energy consumption of large public buildings will be dynamically analyzed with the help of GPRS / Wi Fi and other wireless transmission technologies, so as to make a practical contribution to the cause of energy conservation and consumption reduction in China, Monitor the energy consumption of large public buildings, and effectively optimize and control if excessive energy consumption is found.

关键词:监控系统;能耗装置;控制系统

Key words: monitoring system; Energy consumption device; Control system

 

0.背景 background

我国建设部提出,经过大数据统计分析,2020年底,全国建筑总面积已经超过400亿平方米,建筑能耗将达到十点九亿吨标准煤,建筑在建造和使用过程中直接消耗的能源已占全社会总能耗的百分之三十左右。我国当前大型公共建筑能耗在计量、传输、节能监管层次存在一定问题,粗放式能耗管理在一定程度会造成大量的能耗浪费,大型公共建筑能耗监测与节能管理已经成为我国节能减耗工作的方向。虽然我国当前已经开展了信息化能好监管工作,但是很多地方因为数据采集自动化程度较低,管理信息化程度较低,在数据上报的过程中,存在诸多瞒报问题,直接增加了能耗数据统计的难度。为了实现能耗数据信息采集,有效对能源消耗情况进行动态化管控,本文将针对大型公共建筑能耗监控系统进行详细分析。

 China's Ministry of construction has proposed that through the statistical analysis of big data, by the end of 2020, the total construction area of the country has exceeded 40 billion square meters, and the building energy consumption will reach 1.09 billion tons of standard coal. The energy directly consumed by buildings in the process of construction and use has accounted for about 30% of the total energy consumption of the whole society. At present, there are some problems in the measurement, transmission and energy-saving supervision of energy consumption of large public buildings in China. Extensive energy consumption management will cause a lot of energy consumption waste to a certain extent. Energy consumption monitoring and energy-saving management of large public buildings have become the focus of energy conservation and consumption reduction in China. Although China has carried out the supervision of informatization, there are many problems of concealment in the process of data reporting, which directly increases the difficulty of energy consumption data statistics because of the low degree of automation of data collection and low degree of management informatization. In order to achieve accurate energy consumption data collection and effective dynamic control of energy consumption, this paper will analyze the energy consumption monitoring system of large public buildings in detail.

 

1. 国内外大型公共建筑能耗监控系统发展 development of energy consumption monitoring system for large public buildings at home and abroad

 放眼国外来看,国外的智能楼宇技术已经较为成熟,能耗数据信息监测的智能化、自动化水平也相对较高。针对发达国家来说,尤其是针对大型公共建筑的能耗监控是相当注重的,智能化能耗监测设备也不断完善,工程系统运行稳定。针对我国来说,智能楼宇技术虽然有所运用,但是缺乏系统化的智能楼宇集成系统,相关观念、理念并未形成,与国外仍然存在较大差距。我国很多智能楼宇系统在运行的过程中,缺乏相关系统整体运行机制,会造成事半功倍问题,导致投资浪费,智能楼宇监测系的实时性、可靠性、稳定性都很难达到世界标准水平。国外当前很多信息化技术企业都已经针对大型公共建筑能耗监控系统,研发出了与其相匹配的系统性产品,美国霍尼韦尔、美国江森自控、德国西门子等公司,都努力进行了能耗监测系统产品研发,促使国家大型公共建筑能耗监控系统运行更加稳定。我国智能楼宇发展虽然存在不完善之处,但是在国家和企业的共同努力推动之下,正在努力发展。我国上海元上能耗计量管理系统、研华地BEMS楼宇能源管理系统,都展现出了自身价值,在我国大型公共建筑能耗监控工作当中运用广泛。

   Looking abroad, foreign intelligent building technology has been relatively mature, and the intelligent and automatic level of energy consumption data and information monitoring is also relatively high. For developed countries, especially for large public buildings, great attention is paid to energy consumption monitoring, intelligent energy consumption monitoring equipment is constantly improved, and the engineering system operates stably. For China, although intelligent building technology has been applied, it lacks systematic intelligent building integration system, relevant concepts and ideas have not been formed, and there is still a large gap with foreign countries. During the operation of many intelligent building systems in China, the lack of overall operation mechanism of relevant systems will lead to the problem of twice the result with half the effort, resulting in a waste of investment. The real-time, reliability and stability of intelligent building monitoring system are difficult to reach the world standard level. At present, many foreign information technology enterprises have developed matching systematic products for the energy consumption monitoring system of large public buildings. American Honeywell, American Johnson Controls, German Siemens and other companies have actively carried out the research and development of energy consumption monitoring system products, so as to promote the operation of energy consumption monitoring system of national large public buildings to be more stable and efficient. Although there are imperfections in the development of intelligent buildings in China, they are actively developing under the joint efforts of the state and enterprises. China's Shanghai Yuanshang energy consumption measurement and management system and Advantech BEMS building energy management system all show their unique value and are widely used in the energy consumption monitoring of large public buildings in China.

 

2大型公共建筑能耗监控数据采集 Energy consumption monitoring data collection of large public buildings

2.1能耗监控数据采集 energy consumption monitoring data collection

大型公共建筑能耗数内部数据系统繁杂,并且耗能的单位较多,为了做好大型公共建筑能耗监控系统构架,要对大型公共建筑能耗监控数据信息内容进行把控。结合我国颁布的《国家机关办公建筑和大型公共建筑的具体内容》当中的要求来看,大型公共建筑能耗数据信息监控内容如图1所示。

 The internal data system of energy consumption of large public buildings is complex, and there are many energy consuming units. In order to do a good job in the framework of energy consumption monitoring system of large public buildings, it is necessary to control the content of energy consumption monitoring data of large public buildings. According to the requirements in the specific contents of state organ office buildings and large public buildings issued by China, the monitoring content of energy consumption data information of large public buildings is shown in Figure 1.

 

图1 能耗监控数据采集内容

Figure 1 energy consumption monitoring data collection content

2.2能耗监控数据处理 energy consumption monitoring data processing

 在开展大型公共建筑能耗监测的过程中,可以借助一般性检验计量装置对能耗数据信息进行检测,在明确能耗计量装置峰值和谷值的基础上,对各项数据进行监控。针对电能表当中的功率情况进行验证。为了保障数据信息采集的有效性,可以连续两次进行数据信息采集,对两次数据信息采集误差进行把控,确保功率低于之路能耗设备功率的2倍。在确保数据信息采集准确性的基础上,还需要开展分项能耗数据计算,借助计量装置开展检测,结合各项能耗指标的计算方法,保障计量检测水平。

 In the process of energy consumption monitoring of large public buildings, the energy consumption data information can be detected with the help of general inspection and metering devices, and various data can be monitored on the basis of clarifying the peak and valley values of energy consumption metering devices. Verify the power in the watt hour meter. In order to ensure the effectiveness of data and information collection, data and information collection can be carried out twice in a row, and the errors of the two data and information collection can be controlled to ensure that the power is less than twice the peak power of the energy consuming equipment on the road. On the basis of ensuring the accuracy of data information collection, it is also necessary to carry out sub item energy consumption data calculation, carry out detection with the help of metering devices, and ensure the measurement and detection level in combination with the calculation method of various energy consumption indicators.

 

3大型公共建筑能耗监控系统构建框架construction framework of energy consumption monitoring system for large public buildings

3.1系统框架 system framework

本文当中所研究的大型公共建筑能耗监控系统,紧密依照《国家机关办公建筑和大型公共建筑能耗监测系统——软件开发指导说明书》当中的要求开展设计的,切实满足了我国规定的设计标准。大型公共建筑能耗监控系统框架搭建模式如图2所示,其主要目的便是获取采集器前端数据信息。针对信息资源与数据层来说,便是在大型公共建筑当中,实现一手能源消耗的数据信息获取、传输,将采集到的能耗数据信息进行分类。针对应用层来说,涵盖了数据及信息管理、分析展示、信息服务、后台管理等四个层次内容,不同层次当中涵盖了诸多字内容。应用层在大型公共建筑能耗监控工作当中的功能,便是用于能耗数据信息处理、展示、数据信息监测。在应用层当中,可以将每个功能当成独立的系统模块,在设计应用层模块时,应该保障每个处理模块相对独立,减少各个模块之间的相互干扰,为后续能耗数据信息处理做铺垫。针对表现层来说,便是对社会当中不同角色可以结合自身的实际需求,对大型公共建筑能耗数据信息进行分析。

The energy consumption monitoring system of large-scale public buildings studied in this paper is designed in close accordance with the requirements of "energy consumption monitoring system of state organ office buildings and large-scale public buildings - software development guidance manual", which effectively meets the design standards specified in our country. The framework construction mode of energy consumption monitoring system for large public buildings is shown in Figure 2. Its main purpose is to obtain the front-end data information of the collector. For the information resources and data layer, it is to achieve the acquisition and transmission of first-hand energy consumption data information in large public buildings, and classify the collected energy consumption data information. For the application layer, it covers four levels: data and information management, analysis and display, information service and background management. Many words are covered in different levels. The function of the application layer in the energy consumption monitoring of large public buildings is used for energy consumption data information processing, display and data information monitoring. In the application layer, each function can be regarded as an independent system module. When designing the application layer module, each processing module should be relatively independent to reduce the mutual interference between each module and pave the way for the subsequent energy consumption data information processing. For the performance layer, it is to analyze the energy consumption data information of large-scale public buildings for different roles in the society in combination with their own actual needs.

 

 

图2 大型公共建筑能耗监控系统构建框架图

Figure 2 construction framework of energy consumption monitoring system for large public buildings

3.2软件构架 software architecture

大型公共建筑能耗监控工作一般是借助软件APP进行操控管理的,在本文当中所提及到的大型公共建筑能耗监控系统软件当中,涵盖了监控终端、数据库、数据管理系统、数据采集系统、防火墙、通信网络、集中器、楼宇数据信息采集终端。智能楼宇系统所采集到的能耗数据信息,会传输到数据集中器当中,将建筑物当中电能表、水表、冷量表、气表等能耗数据信息、运行状态进行集中处理。集中器会将数据信息转换成TCP/IP协议数据包等,通信网络在防火墙的作用之下,促使数据信息处理模块运行,将有关的能耗数据信息传输到数据库当中。数据信息采集系统对集中器当中的楼宇终端通信协议进行管理,定时对数据通信存在的错误进行查错。针对数据丢失、工作异常等诸多内容进行相关数据处理,有效获取数据库当中的相关数据信息,结合系统设置的能耗监测指标,动态化对建筑物当中的能耗情况进行监控、测评、分析、存储、展示。监控终端一般会从数据库当中获取相关数据并且得出评估结果,对其进行综合分析把控。监控终端会结合数据库、数据采集系统、通信网络、防火墙、集中器等,对控制指令进行分析,以便于对楼宇的采集终端数据信息状态把控。

 The energy consumption monitoring of large public buildings is generally controlled and managed with the help of software app. The energy consumption monitoring system software of large public buildings mentioned in this paper covers monitoring terminal, database, data management system, data acquisition system, firewall, communication network, concentrator and building data information acquisition terminal. The energy consumption data information collected by the intelligent building system will be transmitted to the data concentrator for centralized processing of energy consumption data information and operation status such as electric energy meter, water meter, cooling meter and gas meter in the building. The concentrator will convert the data information into TCP / IP protocol packets. Under the action of firewall, the communication network will promote the operation of data information processing module and transmit the relevant energy consumption data information to the database. The data acquisition system manages the building terminal communication protocol in the concentrator and checks the errors in data communication regularly. Conduct relevant data processing for many contents such as data loss and abnormal work, effectively obtain relevant data information in the database, and dynamically monitor, evaluate, analyze, store and display the energy consumption in the building in combination with the energy consumption monitoring indicators set by the system. The monitoring terminal will generally obtain relevant data from the database and obtain the evaluation results for comprehensive analysis and control. The monitoring terminal will analyze the control instructions in combination with the database, data acquisition system, communication network, firewall, concentrator, etc., so as to control the data information status of the acquisition terminal of the building.

 

4.大型公共建筑能耗监控系统关键技术key technologies of energy consumption monitoring system for large public buildings.

4.1多种能耗采集终端接入技术multiple energy consumption acquisition terminal access technologies

在大型公共建筑能耗监控系统当中,关键的技术之一便是多种能耗采集终端接入技术,以便于对公共建筑当中的多种能耗进行整合采集。不同品牌能耗监控系统当中的多种能耗采集终端接入技术存在不同差异,如何借助一个集中器进行多种能耗采集连接至关重要。因为不同能耗监控系统存在私有协议,所以在选择大型公共建筑能耗监控系统时,应该对不同品牌的系统进行分析,明确各个品牌的私有协议、种能耗采集连接方式,保障不同品牌开发的能耗监控系统满足大型公共建筑的实际使用需求,确保软件系统可以顺利接入到不同能耗采集终端当中。

 In the energy consumption monitoring system of large public buildings, one of the key technologies is a variety of energy consumption acquisition terminal access technology, so as to integrate and collect a variety of energy consumption in public buildings. There are different access technologies of multiple energy consumption acquisition terminals in different brands of energy consumption monitoring systems. How to connect multiple energy consumption acquisition terminals with one concentrator is very important. Because there are private protocols for different energy consumption monitoring systems, when selecting the energy consumption monitoring system of large public buildings, we should analyze the systems of different brands, clarify the private protocols and energy consumption collection and connection modes of each brand, and ensure that the energy consumption monitoring system developed by different brands can meet the actual use needs of large public buildings, Ensure that the software system can be smoothly connected to different energy consumption acquisition terminals.

4.2系统软件开发技术system software development technology

在实际开展大型公共建筑能耗监控系统运用时,需要结合系统的整体框架和模块分层特点,引入本软件平台的开发技术。借助Java、JavaScrip等编程语言进行程序编码设计,将数据存储库与云存储技术相衔接,确保能耗数据信息存储的安全性与巨型容量。在进行数据信息传输通讯时,应该选择稳定的RS485数据通信标准,保障存储数据信息高质量运行。

In the actual application of large-scale public building energy consumption monitoring system, it is necessary to introduce the development technology of this software platform in combination with the overall framework and module layered characteristics of the system. With the help of Java, javascrip and other programming languages for program coding design, the data repository is connected with cloud storage technology to ensure the security and huge capacity of energy consumption data information storage. During data information transmission and communication, a stable RS485 data communication standard should be selected to ensure the high-quality operation of stored data information.

 

5.安科瑞能耗监控系统介绍Introduction to ankerui energy consumption monitoring system

Acrel-5000能耗在线监测系统是用户端能源管理分析系统,在电能管理系统的基础上增加了对水、气、煤、油、热(冷)量等集中采集与分析,通过对用户端所有能耗进行细分和统计,以直观的数据和图表向管理人员或决策层展示各类能源的使用消耗情况,便于找出高耗能点或不合理的耗能习惯,有效节约能源,为用户进一步节能改造或设备升级提供准确的数据支撑。用户可按照国家有关规定实施能源审计,分析现状,查找问题,挖掘节能潜力,提出切实可行的节能措施,并向县级以上人民政府管理节能工作的部门报送能源审计报告。

Acrel-5000 energy consumption online monitoring system is a user-side energy management and analysis system. Based on the electric energy management system, it adds centralized collection and analysis of water, gas, coal, oil and heat (cooling) capacity. By subdividing and counting all energy consumption at the user-side, it shows the use and consumption of various energy to managers or decision-makers with intuitive data and charts, It is convenient to find out high energy consumption points or unreasonable energy consumption habits, effectively save energy, and provide accurate data support for users' further energy-saving transformation or equipment upgrading. Users can implement energy audit in accordance with relevant national regulations, analyze the current situation, find problems, tap energy-saving potential, put forward practical energy-saving measures, and submit energy audit reports to the administrative department of energy conservation of the people's government at or above the county level.

5.1平台结构 platform structure

Acrel-5000能耗在线监测系统以计算机、通讯设备、测控单元为基本工具,根据现场实际情况采用现场总线、光纤环网或无线通讯中的一种或多种结合的组网方式,为大型公共建筑的实时数据采集及远程管理与控制提供了基础平台,它可以和检测设备构成任意复杂的监控系统。开放性、网络化、单元化、组态化的采用面向对象的分层、分级、分布式智能一体化结构。建立如下层次结构:

Acrel-5000 energy consumption online monitoring system takes computers, communication equipment and measurement and control units as basic tools, and adopts one or more combined networking modes of fieldbus, optical fiber ring network or wireless communication according to the actual situation of the site, providing a basic platform for real-time data acquisition, remote management and control of large public buildings, It can form any complex monitoring system with detection equipment. It is open, networked, unitized and configurable, and adopts the object-oriented hierarchical, hierarchical and distributed intelligent integrated structure. Establish the following hierarchy:

 

 

图3 平台结构

Figure 3 platform structure

5.2平台功能platform functions

(1)系统可按使用年份统计建筑物各分类能耗——电、水、气、集中供热、集中供冷以及其它能源消耗量,自动折算成相应的标准煤消耗量,从而反映建筑物当年各分类能耗用能和综合能耗。系统以饼图形式展示建筑4大用电分项能耗的占比情况。系统以曲线图形展现各类能耗的消耗的消耗趋势,便于业主方实时直观掌握能源消耗情况。

(2)系统可以根据分类能耗的支路名称查询用能情况,显示当日和当月的用能峰值。显示当日用能、当月用能、当年用能与昨日同期用能、上月同期用能、上年同期用能的比较情况。以条形显示过去48小时、31天、12个月、3年的能耗情况。右上角显示过去15分钟曲线(电表显示功率曲线,流量表显示流速曲线)。

(3)系统依据建筑物能源消耗的分布情况进行能耗计量点的选取和设置,使得能耗监测系统可以覆盖整个建筑物。系统使用者可通过相关界面调取该建筑物各能耗节点的能耗统计报表,减少用能的“跑、冒、滴、漏”和计量误差。

(4)系统依据住建部分类分项能耗数据采集导则,将建筑物耗电分为照明插座、空调、动力和特殊用电进行计量装置选型和设置,并按用能区域或功能区域等划分并进行统计,以报表和同、环比棒图形式展现该区域的能源消耗。

(5)系统可针对能源消耗量大的设备或区域进行准确定位,便于管理层制定节能绩效考核制度,推动节能降耗的有效执行。为用能重点设备建立运行记录档案,长期跟踪记录设备运行过程中的能效分析评估结果,结合设备维护保养记录,为设备的运行维护提供依据。

(6)系统提供分级权限管理功能,对具备权限用户提供开放的信息维护接口,用户可自行对建筑和系统监测范围内计量点的信息进行增、删、改和查询,建筑物信息包括建筑类型、建设年代、建筑面积、建筑物人员数量等。系统还对无法自动采集的计量信息提供手动录入功能,便于使用者掌握建筑物总体能耗情况。

 (1) The system can count the energy consumption of each classification of buildings - electricity, water, gas, central heating, central cooling and other energy consumption according to the service year, and automatically convert it into the corresponding standard coal consumption, so as to reflect the energy consumption and comprehensive energy consumption of each classification of buildings in the current year. The system displays the proportion of the energy consumption of the four major power sub items of the building in the form of pie chart. The system shows the consumption trend of various energy consumption with curves and graphs, which is convenient for the owner to grasp the energy consumption in real time and intuitively.

(2) The system can query the energy consumption according to the branch name of classified energy consumption, and display the peak energy consumption of the current day and the current month. It shows the comparison of energy consumption of the current day, the current month, the current year and the same period of yesterday, the same period of last month and the same period of last year. The energy consumption in the past 48 hours, 31 days, 12 months and 3 years is displayed in a bar. The upper right corner shows the curve of the past 15 minutes (the electricity meter shows the power curve and the flow meter shows the flow rate curve).

(3) The system selects and sets energy consumption measurement points according to the distribution of building energy consumption, so that the energy consumption monitoring system can cover the whole building. The system user can access the energy consumption statistical report of each energy consumption node of the building through the relevant interface to reduce the "running, emitting, dripping and leakage" and measurement error of energy consumption.

(4) According to the guidelines for energy consumption data collection of sub items of residential buildings, the system divides the power consumption of buildings into lighting sockets, air conditioners, power and special power, selects and sets metering devices, divides and makes statistics according to energy consumption areas or functional areas, and displays the energy consumption of the area in the form of statements and comparison bar charts.

(5) The system can accurately locate equipment or areas with large energy consumption, so as to facilitate the management to formulate energy-saving performance evaluation system and promote the effective implementation of energy conservation and consumption reduction. Establish operation record files for key energy consuming equipment, track and record the energy efficiency analysis and evaluation results during equipment operation for a long time, and provide basis for equipment operation and maintenance in combination with equipment maintenance records.

(6) The system provides hierarchical authority management function and provides open information maintenance interface for users with authority. Users can add, delete, modify and query the information of buildings and measurement points within the monitoring range of the system. Building information includes building type, construction age, building area, number of building personnel, etc. The system also provides manual input function for measurement information that cannot be automatically collected, so that users can master the overall energy consumption of buildings.

5.3数据上传data upload

安科瑞能耗在线监测系统按照重点用能单位能耗在线监测系统技术规范定义的系统平台接口协议规范的要求,将用能企业的基础信息、计量器具信息、用能数据及能效数据上传至省级或国家平台,上传数据经过HTTPS协议加密传输。如果数据传输失败或超时(网络故障),将重发数据,直至接收成功反馈消息。

According to the requirements of the system platform interface protocol specification defined in the technical specification of the on-line monitoring system for energy consumption of key energy users, the on-line monitoring system for energy consumption of ankerui will upload the basic information, measuring instrument information, energy consumption data and energy efficiency data of energy consuming enterprises to the provincial or national platform, and the uploaded data will be encrypted and transmitted through HTTPS protocol. If the data transmission fails or times out (network failure), the data will be retransmitted until a successful feedback message is received.

  

5.4能源计量表具选型selection of energy meters

  

 

6结束语 Conclusion

总而言之,大型公共建筑能耗监控系统自身具备一定优势,在运行的过程中可以满足当前社会绿色节能发展需求。为此,应该结合我国当前建筑事业发展需求,努力对大型公

共建筑能耗监控系统以及相关设备进行创新,完善能耗监控系统相关配套设施,动态化及时对大型公共建筑的能耗进行分析,及时发现造成能耗过多造成的问题,并有针对性的进行改进,践行我国及世界节能减耗发展需求。

In a word, the energy consumption monitoring system of large public buildings has certain advantages, and can meet the current social green energy-saving development needs in the process of operation. Therefore, in combination with the current development needs of China's construction industry, we should actively innovate the energy consumption monitoring system and related equipment of large public buildings, improve the relevant supporting facilities of the energy consumption monitoring system, dynamically and timely analyze the energy consumption of large public buildings, timely find the problems caused by excessive energy consumption, and make targeted improvements, Truly implement the development needs of energy conservation and consumption reduction in China and the world.